SOUND AND IMMERSION IN THE FIRST-PERSON SHOOTER

Mark Grimshaw

ABSTRACT
One of the aims of modern First-Person Shooter (FPS) design is to provide an immersive experience to the player. This paper examines the role of sound in enabling such immersion and argues that, even in ‘realism’ FPS games, it may be achieved sonically through a focus on caricature rather than realism. The paper utilizes and develops previous work in which both a conceptual framework for the design and analysis of run and gun FPS sound is developed and the notion of the relationship between player and FPS soundscape as an acoustic ecology is put forward (Grimshaw and Schott 2007a; Grimshaw and Schott 2007b). Some problems of sound practice and sound reproduction in the game are highlighted and a conceptual solution is proposed.

AN APPLICATION OF GOMS MODEL TO ANALYSE AND PREDICT GAMER BEHAVIOURS IN MMORPG

Seungkeun Song, Jun Jo and Michel Eboueya

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this research is to build a behavior prediction model of Massively Multiplayer Online Role-playing Game (MMORPG) gameplay using the GOMS analysis method. GOMS analysis (Card et al. 1983) is an observational approach to Human Computer Interaction (HCI) to model and predict behaviors of a human operator in a highly interactive task. This method has been employed by many researchers in order to model and predict the behaviors of gamers (or computer game players). However, it is rare to find its application in the MMORPG game genre. In this research, a pilot experiment was previously conducted with three skilled gamers. The gamers were provided with the goals and operators through the user's guide book, and they found methods and selection rules while being observed (Song et al., 2006). Based on the results obtained from the pilot study, this research was expanded and the model was further tested with 30 subjects (gamers). The new outcomes revealed that the relevance of GOMS analysis for predicting selection rules is 96.25% according to the degree of abstraction and 77.35% based on the degree of complexity. This research will provide game designers with a new testing mechanism in the early development stages, in order to improve the quality of the game product.

e-CAMPUS : A MMORPG PROVIDING e-SERVICES TO CAMPUS USERS

Didier Sébastien, Olivier Sébastien and Noël Conruyt

ABSTRACT
This paper introduces “e-Campus”, a virtual reality world reproducing the campus of La Reunion island’s university. This platform was created in the context of a collaboration between the university and a private company specialized in video games. It is based on a game engine initially dedicated to MMORPG (Massive Multiplayer Online Role Playing Game). The aim is thus to provide users (students, teachers and administrative members) with all e-services that a campus can give, from the online courses to the restaurant’s menu, through immersive representations. A first prototype has been recently released and tested: by developers through a benchmark, and by end-users through focus groups studies. Sociologists, statisticians and usability specialists are involved in the experience and help to structure the test process, gather feedbacks and analyse them. These information help us to evaluate and improve our application in order to increase the appropriation of e-Campus by the different groups of users.

INVINCIBLE - A STRATEGO BOT

Vincent de Boer and Leon Rothkrantz and Pascal Wiggers

ABSTRACT
For decades, the main interest of game AI research has gone to the game of Chess. A lot of techniques were developed for this game that are applicable for other games as well. Stratego is one of the games for which the existing techniques reach no satisfactory performance levels, even against weak human players. Invincible is a Stratego-bot that uses innovative techniques to solve the weaknesses of existing Stratego-bots. The process to reason about the next move has been divided in different plans that give values to moves based on clearly defined goals. Invincible further uses a probabilistic model of the opponents pieces where each piece is modeled having a probability for each of the ranks it can possibly have. We developed a running prototype. This prototype has been tested, and the results of these tests are discussed in this paper.

PLOT CONTROL FOR EMERGENT NARRATIVE: A CASE STUDY ON TETRIS

Guylain Delmas, Ronan Champagnat, Michel Augeraud

ABSTRACT
Interactive narrative and adaptive execution are some of innovative aspects of game development. There are various approaches in the area, but they are most about complex games and stories including characters, emotional aspects and dialogues. In this paper, we wonder about the possibility to associate a basic puzzle game with a monitoring system designed for interactive narrative. We study the narrative aspects of the Tetris game, and show evidence of narrative construction in game execution. Then we make a tour of current approaches for interactive narrative in games, and study their application to puzzle games. We end with a proposition of plot monitoring for games, relying on parallel between drama tension in a movie and player’s tension in front of a game. An experiment was made with the game Tetris, showing that a control system designed around evaluation of player’s tension make it possible to obtain an execution trace closed to a narrative one.

PLAY, GAME, WORLD: ANATOMY OF A VIDEOGAME

Damien Djaouti, Julian Alvarez, Jean-Pierre Jessel, Gilles Methel

ABSTRACT
This paper is part of an experimental approach aimed to study the nature of videogames. We will focus on videogames rules in order to try to understand the anatomy of a videogame. Being inspired by the methodology that Propp used for his classification of Russian fairy tales, we have cleared out recurrent diagrams within rules of videogames. We then analyzed these rules diagrams by using the definition of a game drawn by Salen & Zimmerman, which led us to propose a definition for the nature of gameplay. Through an additional analysis, we will be able to propose a typology of videogames rules which extends the typology proposed by Frasca.
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